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Jallianwala Bagh Hatyakand in English


Jallianwala Bagh Hatyakand in English



Jallianwala Bagh Hatyakand dated 13 April 1919
Location Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar (Punjab)
Number of Martyrs 484
Hunter Inquiry Committee formed October 1919
Brigadier General Reginald Dyer, who ordered the assassination
How many bullets lasted 1650 rounds (approx)






Jaliyanwala bagh Hatyakand





Due to Jallianwala Bagh Hatyakand (Jallianwala Bagh Hatyakand reasons ) -








(i) Influence of Gadar Andonal - The Gadar Party was founded on 21 April 1913 in San Francisco (USA). The only purpose of this party was to dislodge the British rule from India. For this, he had planned against the British on 21 February 1915, but the British came to know about this plan, due to which all the leaders and agitators were arrested, out of which 42 agitators were hanged and the others were jailed. Given. This intensified the rebellion against the British rule in the people.





(ii) Forcibly recruiting Indians Nuzvans into the army by the British.





(iii) Increase the price of goods by imposing more tax on items of basic necessity.





(iv) Rowlatt Act - Under the Rowlatt Act, the police were given full rights to arrest, detain and search any citizen without warrant. This could not be used in the courts, it meant that no one could raise their voice against the British and it was clearly a violation of personal liberty.





Jallianwala Bagh Hatyakand in English





On 6 February 1919, two bills named Rowlatt Bill were introduced to be passed in the larger council. On 24 February, Gandhiji announced that if the bills are passed, there will be Satyagraha in the whole country. On 30 March 1919, a country-wide plan was made against the Rowlatt Bill, but the date of this strike was extended to 6 April. But due to not reaching Delhi news, the strike took place on 30 March 1919. But in the meantime, the first bill of Rowlatt Act was passed in the first week of March. Strikes took place all over the country.





Gandhiji's arrest





On the day of 9 April Ramnavami festival, Hindus and Muslims took out a procession, in the meantime mahatma Gandhiji also wanted to come to Punjab, but he was arrested by police at Palwal station and sent back to Mumbai.


The British police arrest of the leaders created further tension in Punjab, seeing that the British police started to bloom, then they put the city of Amritsar  in the hands of the army. The chief of the army was Brigadier General Reginald Dyer.








British atrocities before Jallianwala Hatyakand





On April 11, Amritsar's people went on strike and took out a procession on April 12, the army completely surrounded the city of Amritsar. Brigadier General Reginald Dyer ascertained the location of the entire Amritsar by airplane and an army march was conducted in every street to spread fear in the public and not to strike any kind.





On 12 April itself, the main leaders who were involved in the strike were arrested and taken to Rambagh and they were tied to trees and the Gorkha army was stationed there for surveillance. Later, two leaders of the movement Satyapal and Saifuddin Kitchloo were arrested and sentenced to Kalapani.





On 10 April 1919, in front of the Deputy Commissioner of Amritsar, the people started shouting slogans, seeing the atmosphere of this revolt, the British opened fire on the people who were on strike, which further worsened the looting everywhere. 10 to 15 people died in this shelling.





Jallianwala Bagh Hatyakand Date and Time -





April 13, 1919 was the day of Baisakhi, at that time the festival of Baishakh was celebrated loudly in the city of Amritsar, so the people of the nearby villages also started coming to Amritsar. These people who had come to participate in Baisakhi fair had stored their camp in Jallianwala Bagh. On this day, General Dyer announced that there should be no gathering and meeting of any kind in the city.





But this announcement did not reach everyone. A meeting was organized for the release of the arrested leaders at Jallianwala Bagh. People who came to celebrate Baisakhi started gathering at the place of Kotuhal after seeing the meeting.





By 4.30 pm, around 10,000 people had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, which included children, old men, young men and young people. The atmosphere of the people was there and the tension was at its peak.





A speech was being given in this meeting to withdraw the Rowlatt Act (black law) and condemned the firing on April 10, and demanded the release of the arrested chief leaders Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Saifuddin Kichlu. . The meeting was at its peak when General Dyer, with his force, came to the only door of Jallianwala Bagh, there were high walls around Jallianwala Bagh.





And there was only one way that could be reached. At this door, people of the army stood with their guns pointed out, then General Dyer ordered all the people to be gunned down with bullets. Senico started firing bullets.





bullet marks Jallianwala Bagh
Bullet marks on the walls of Jallianwala Bagh
Then people ran towards the main door of Jallianwala Bagh, but could not stand before the bullets, some people tried to leave the walls but did not succeed and the well inside the Jallianwala Bagh was also some people in that well to save lives Jumped off





But due to the deepening of the well, he could not survive. Mont's orgy continued for about 10 minutes. About 1650 rounds of bullets were fired in this massacre.In the end, Cenico's bullets ended, then General Dyer thought this lesson was enough because he left it.





About 1000 innocent and unarmed people were killed in Jallianwala Bagh Hatyakand , but this figure is not correct but more people were killed in this massacre.





How many people died in Jallianwala Bagh Hatyakand -





According to the office of the Deputy Commissioner of Amritsar in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, there is a list of 484 martyrs, while in Jallianwala Bagh, there is a list of 388 martyrs but people say that more than 1000 people were killed and more than 2000 were injured.





According to the British rule, 200 people were injured and 379 were martyred in this massacre of which 337 were men, 41 minor boys and one 6-week-old child.





What happened after the Jallianwala Bagh Hatyakand





Then Ratan Devi reached there, searching for her loved ones in Jallianwala Bagh and throughout the night, Ratan Devi continued to see people dying. No one was able to reach here due to curfew being levied in the city. And as soon as morning, there was a pile of corpses. Even after this Karur massacre, the government had not made any arrangements for the injured.





Those who were killed were young children, some were shot in the eyes and some in the arms. Guru Ravindranath Tagore renounced his title, he said that the time has come when the Medal of Honor seems to be a shame.





Jallianwala Bagh Hatyakand affects martyr Bhagat Singh -





Bhagat Singh was from a revolutionary family, due to which patriotism was filled with code. On the second day, when Bhagat Singh was going from his school, he came to know that in Jallianwala Bagh, the British shot and killed the people, then they did not stay and





He walked 12 kilometers from there to Jallianwala Bagh and after seeing what he saw there, he was very shocked and his feeling of patriotism increased. Therefore, he had planted his soil and had become a martyr for the country at the age of just 23 years.





Applying Martial Law -





Despite all this, General Dyer continued his repression cycle and kept adopting new ways of pleasing people. General Dyer issued a spade. Miss Marcella Sherwood was beaten by the crowds in Kuchetavariya during the riots and forced to crawl on her stomach. Now every Indian people’s who has passed through Kuchatavaria will have to go crawling belly hair.





But British General Dyer did not think that Miss Marcella Sherwood was sheltered by an Indian family. Martial law was imposed in entire Punjab. The news of Punjab was banned from going out and this was the reason that the Congress party came to know about the Jallianwala baagh massacre. As soon as this news spread in India, the hearts of Indians were filled with sorrow, sorrow and anger.





Constitution of Hunter Inquiry Committee -





Due to the arbitrary misdeeds of General Dyer, rebellion erupted all over Punjab and in the same way, there were fires of rebellion in Tasur, Gujarawala and Lahore. Seeing all this, the British government appointed the Hunter Investigation Committee Nute, who was to investigate the murder in Jallianwala Bagh, in October 1919, six months after the Jallianwala massacre, this inquiry committee included William Hunter, Justice George Racken and Chimanlal Setalvad.





On November 19, 1919, General Dyer appeared before the commission and justified his crimes .. But due to the British people being on the committee, Lipa's granddaughter was not sentenced even after General Dyer was guilty, just two years ago. Retired and sent to Britain. But the Congress appointed a committee of its own to get the right information about the events of Punjab, whose main members -





Sarva Shri Madan Mohan Malaviya, Mahatma Gandhi, Desh Bandhu Chitranandan Das, Motilal Nehru, Badruddin Tayyab Ji and Jayakar This committee studied the events of Punjab for three months and the committee strongly condemned the Punjab Governor, chiefly Punjab Governor Michael Odyer and the army's General Dyer.





Questions from General Dyer of the Hunter Inquiry Committee - Answers: -





Hunter Investigation Committee - What did you do when you reached Jallianwala Bagh?





General Dyer - I ordered the soldiers to shoot.





Hunter Investigation Committee - Did you order this on the way there?





General Dyer - Yes, I ordered to fire as soon as I arrived.





Hunter Inquiry Committee - Didn't Warn?





General Dyer - No, because despite our morning announcement, people had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh. He was refused any meeting, though he would have received a warning for my arrival.





Hunter Investigation Committee - What was the motive for firing again?





General Dyer - I did not want to prank the crowd by shooting bullets, I wanted people of Punjab to be so scared after such firing that they would not dare to do it again.





 





Revenge of Jallianwala Bagh Hatyakand -





When this Hatyakand was taking place, Udham Singh was the same man, he was also injured due to the bullet. This Hatyakand had such an impact on him that he started planning a strategy to kill General Dyer and he also succeeded in it, but he killed Michael O Dwyer instead of General Dyer.





On 13 March 1940, he shot and killed British Lt. Governor Michael O'Dwyer at the time of this incident in Caxton Hall, London. After this, he was arrested and Udham Singh was hanged on 31 July 1940.





thanks for reading jaliyanwala bagh Hatyakand (massacre)


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